Annex II: Definitions

21st Century Skills"21st century skills" generally refer to certain core competencies such as collaboration, digital literacy, critical thinking, and problem-solving that advocates believe schools need to teach to help students thrive in today's world 1.

Crowdfunding-- The practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet.

Evaluation – A function that involves not only the ability to monitor, but also to assess in a systematic and objective manner the effectiveness of a program in improving outcomes.

Focus Group Discussion – A participatory research activity that generally brings together six to ten people that represent the same type of participants for a conversation around a specific issue or set of questions put forward by a facilitator.

Impacts – The long-term effects caused by program activities. This includes sustainable changes or permanent status resulting from changes in behavior over a period of time.

Impact Assessment – A particular type of evaluation that is structured to isolate the effect of specific program activities on longer-term youth outcomes. An impact assessment involves data collection to compare groups receiving program products or services and other, similar, groups who do not.

Impact Sourcing – Impact Sourcing is the socially responsible arm of the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) and Information Technology Outsourcing industry. Impact sourcing intentionally employs people who have limited opportunity for sustainable employment—often in low-income areas.

Life Skills – Skills commonly known as “soft skills,” as they encompass personal and inter-personal skills that affect social and work performance. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines life skills as the ability for adaptive and positive behavior that enables individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life.

Market-based Assessment – An assessment of the market for products and services. It includes labor markets in which the target population(s) of workers competes for jobs and employers compete for workers.

Mentor – Typically, a seasoned business professional, who is willing to advise someone with less experience. Mentors share their knowledge and experience about business, markets, and how to succeed. They guide young entrepreneurs as they build their businesses and take on more responsibility.

Monitoring – A function that allows implementers and main stakeholders to track whether financial resources and other inputs are being used according to plan to achieve project objectives. Monitoring also can involve choosing which outcomes are expected to improve among participants and having the ability to measure those changes over the course of the program.

Open Source Technology – Technology that is developed concurrently and in collaboration with peers, with the end product (and source-material) available at no cost to the public.

Outcomes – The short- and medium-term effects of project outputs for participants.

Randomized Control Trial – An impact assessment methodology that randomly selects some individuals or groups for participation in an intervention, while assigning others to non-participation (control group) status (for a period of time).

Scale – The process of extending and expanding change, social benefit, and value by increasing the number of people benefiting from a change that they have adopted or adapted.

Situational Analysis – Analysis of the social, political, and cultural contexts of a given target group.

Social Innovation—The process of inventing, securing support for, and implementing novel solutions to social needs and problems.  Achieving social innovation requires an unique approach in breaking down sectors and new collaborations between public, private, and nonprofit sectors.

Sustainability – The state achieved when all costs are internalized by the program. In other words, the program does not rely on outside sources to cover operation costs. It also can refer to the duration of a program or organization.

Value Chain Analysis – An analysis of the economic actors (and the relationships between them) who make and transact a particular product as it moves from primary producer to final consumer. The value chain comprises the players, activities, and linkages that add value to products or services as they move up the chain.

Youth – The period between childhood and adulthood. Definitions of the specific age range that constitutes youth vary, but the United Nations defines youth as between 15 and 24 years of age. The term “young people” encompasses both youth and younger adolescents, ages 10 to 14.