With 1.8 billion people between the ages of 15 and 29, the world is home to more young people today than ever before. Close to 87 per cent of them live in developing countries. Young people make up approximately one quarter of humanity, but in many countries, especially in South Asia and Africa, one in three people is a young person. Demographic trends and projections make it clear that the proportion of young people in the global population is declining and it is predicted to fall below 20 per cent by 2075. The next few decades, therefore, are an unprecedented window of opportunity for the world, and developing countries in particular, to reap the promise of this ‘demographic dividend’.